James Marcia is a Canadian developmental psychologist who expanded on Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. His research and writings have largely focused on adolescent development. His work was to identify and classify processes that adolescents go through when they experience identity crises. The four processes that Marcia defined are:
In this state, an adolescent may blindly accept whatever ideology or values system that has been given to them from their parents or family members. This indicates a “pseudo-identity” that is too rigid or fixed to meet life’s future crises (Slavin).
This state is a struggle of identity that is marked by no real progress in deciding an occupation or ideology of one’s own. There is no commitment to anything or ability to develop one’s sense of self. An individual may have had an identity crisis, but it would not have been resolved (Slavin).
This state marks little real commitment to an ideology or occupation but is also a state of experimentation. It also marks an ongoing identity crisis and the examination of alternate life choices (Slavin).
This state is the state of clarity and of development of one’s identity. It marks a commitment to an ideology or more direction in terms of occupational goals. These decisions have been autonomously made and developed by a formed ego identity.
So, how does this apply to teaching adolescents? Well, as Marcia said, the successful resolution of industry and identity leaves one with the skills and confidence they will need to pursue a career or vocational direction (Marcia). Though Marcia did not believe that the identity process began and ended in adolescence, it is clear that he felt that this state was a vulnerable state for a person. As instructors, this means we need to be providing a safe learning environment where adolescents can not only learn but interact, meet their need for intimacy and explore identity.